National strategy for biodiversity
In the European panorama, Italy is characterized by a heritage of species among the most significant both for the total number and for the high rate of endemism. The geological, biogeographical and land use history, as well as the central position in the Mediterranean Basin (one of the 33 biodiversity hotspots worldwide) have determined the conditions for the development of the current richness in biodiversity.
Compared to the total number of species present in Europe, in Italy there are over 30% of animal species and almost 50% of plant species, all on an area approximately 1/30 of that of the continent.
The fauna is estimated at over 58.000 species, of which about 55.000 of Invertebrates (95%), 1812 of Protozoa (3%) and 1265 of Vertebrates (2%), with an overall incidence of endemic species equal to about 30% .
The flora is made up of over 6.700 species of vascular plants (15% of which are endemic), 851 of mosses and 279 of liverworts. As for the Fungi, about 20.000 species of Macromycetes and Myxomycetes (fungi visible to the naked eye) are known.
To ensure a real integration between the country's development objectives and the protection of its priceless heritage of biodiversity, the Ministry of the Environment has prepared the National Strategy for Biodiversity, adopted in October 2010 by the Permanent Conference for relations between the State , the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces.
The 2011-2020 challenge for Biodiversity
During 2010, declared by the General Assembly of the United Nations "International Year of Biodiversity", the revision of the tools that will make it possible to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services that derive from it over the decade was launched at an international and European level 2011-2020, in turn declared by the United Nations General Assembly "United Nations Decade for Biodiversity".
During 2010, declared by the General Assembly of the United Nations "International Year of Biodiversity", the revision of the tools that will make it possible to halt the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services that derive from it over the decade was launched at an international and European level 2011-2020.
In October 2010, the 10th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COPXNUMX of the CBD) was held in Nagoya, Japan, during which a Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Just and Equitable Sharing was adopted. of the Benefits deriving from their Use (ABS protocol), and was revised on Strategic Plan for the period 2011-2020 with a new vision for CBD biodiversity, to be achieved by 2050, and a new mission for 2020, with 5 strategic objectives and 20 operational objectives.
In this international context, Italy has equipped itself with a tool of fundamental importance to guarantee a real integration between the country's development objectives and the protection of its inestimable heritage of biodiversity, the National Strategy for Biodiversity approved, following a fruitful consultation between the Ministry of the Environment and the Regions and Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bolzano, with the agreement expressed by the Permanent Conference for relations between the State, the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces in the session of 7 October 2010.
The new Strategic Plan of the CBD
La Vision for Biodiversity of the new CBD Strategic Plan provides that "For a world that lives in harmony with nature where, by 2050, biodiversity is evaluated, preserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, supporting a healthy planet and providing all essential benefits".
La mission of the Strategic Plan is to initiate urgent and effective actions to stop the loss of Biodiversity in order to ensure, by 2020, that ecosystems are resilient and continue to provide essential services so as to ensure the variety of life on the planet and to contribute to human well-being and the eradication of poverty. For this to happen it is necessary to reduce the pressures on Biodiversity, restore ecosystem services, use biological resources in a sustainable way and ensure that the benefits deriving from the use of genetic resources are shared in a fair and equitable way, provide adequate financial resources, implement adequate policies and to base decision-making on sound scientific bases and on the precautionary principle.
National Strategy for Biodiversity
The National Strategy for Biodiversity was implemented thanks to a path of participation and sharing between the various institutional, social and economic actors involved, which through specific territorial workshops culminated in the National Conference for Biodiversity (Rome, 20 - 22 May 2010).
The Strategy is a tool for integrating the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources into national sector policies for this purpose and was adopted in agreement with the State-Regions Conference on 7 October 2010.
La Structure of the Strategy is articulated around three key themes:
- Biodiversity and ecosystem services
- Biodiversity and climate change
- Biodiversity and economic policies
Whose respective 3 strategic objectives are achieved with the contribution deriving from the various sector policies identified in 15 work areas.
Governance of the National Strategy for Biodiversity
The implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy requires a multidisciplinary approach and strong sharing and collaboration between policy makers and central and regional administrations, with the support of the academic and scientific world, collecting the requests of stakeholders.
For this reason, the State-Regions Conference was identified as the seat of political decision-making on the Strategy and specific bodies of governance (Ministerial Decree of 6 June 2011 (OJ 143 of 22/6/2011)).
Il Joint Committee for Biodiversity, in support of the activities of the Conference itself, it is made up of representatives of the central administrations and of the Regions and Autonomous Provinces.
The Joint Committee is supported for the technical-scientific aspects by theNational Observatory for BiodiversityIt is made up of representatives of institutions, research bodies, protected areas of national and regional importance and scientific societies.
The establishment of a Consultation table, made up of representatives of the main associations of the economic and productive categories and of environmentalist associations, guarantees the full and constant involvement of stakeholders in the implementation and revision of the Strategy.
Monitoring of Biodiversity and evaluation of the implementation of the Strategy
The National Strategy for Biodiversity provides for the preparation, every two years, of a report on the implementation and effectiveness of the Strategy itself. To this end, a set preliminary of indicators (pdf, 739 KB), consisting of 10 status indicators that aim to represent and evaluate the state of biodiversity in Italy and 30 evaluation indicators aimed at assessing the effectiveness of the actions carried out by the country system in achieving the objectives of the Strategy.
Il first report (pdf, 1.470 MB), relating to the two-year period 2011-2012, was presented in April 2013.
Il July 10 2014 the State-Regions Conference approved the first documents produced by the Joint Committee for Biodiversity. The Conference expressed agreement (pdf, 86 KB) on "The report on the implementation of the National Biodiversity Strategy (period 2011-2012)" e agreement (pdf, 97 KB) on "Guidelines for the recovery, rescue, custody and management of sea turtles"; understanding (pdf, 233 KB) on "first programmatic indications up to 2015".
Documents and attachments
Structure of the Strategy
Goal 6: manage the global biodiversity crisis
National strategy for biodiversity