Preliminary information on the semi-rupestrian churches of Santa Maria della Provvidenza and San Rocco in Modica
(by Vittorio G. Rizzone and Anna M. Sammito)

Taken from: Archivesum Historicum mothicense magazine N. 3/1997 (edited byBoarding school of Modica

On the northern outskirts of the current urban site of Modica, along the path which, after following the bed of the Janni Mauro stream, climbs up the Itria hill and leads towards the Piano Ceci and the valley of the Irminio river, it is a rich concentration of places of worship: San Francesco, Sant'Orsola, Santa Maria della Purificazione or della Candelora, San Rocco, Santa Maria della Provvidenza, San Giuseppe 'u Timpuni (1); the contiguity of these cults and the fact that they have long been abandoned if not destroyed are at the origin of identification problems.

  1. L. Belgiorno proposed to recognize Santa Maria'of the Purification'- of which, moreover, the only available source (Carrafa) does not provide information regarding the location - in the remains incorporated in the suburban farmhouse formerly owned by Schiavo-Lena now Buffa (via San Giuseppe Timpone nc 4) (2), and , describing this religious complex, he distinguished a church with a chapel carved into the rock, with still traces of frescoes, and a hermitage with an altar. Belgiorno then indicated the site of another church, dedicated to Santa Maria 'of Providence', on the opposite side of the 'quarry' and cites notarial deeds between the years 1662 and 1663 which document the existence of the church in the 3th century (XNUMX).

But, with regard to the latter, archival documents and reconnaissance of the place rather prove the identification with the remains of the church incorporated in the aforementioned Buffa cottage.

 

To unequivocally settle the question of the identification of Holy Mary 'of Providence' and to provide new indications for the chronology, two other important notarial deeds help: the first (4), dated 29 October 1661, concerns the appointment, by the Jurors of the City of Modica, of the prosecutors and the treasurer eccl. (esie) Dive Marie Providentie noviter edificande in antro predicto pro construendo dictam Ecc (lesiam) so that possint libereque valeant regere et administrare omnes res dicte Eccl. (esie) noviter construende ac construere facere dictam Eccl. (esiam). It appears, therefore, that the church must be built in honor of the Madonna for having granted nonnullas gratias diversis personis tam huius predicte civitatis Mo. (tuce) quam aliarum civitatum et terrarum huius fidelissimi Sicilian Kingdoms.

From the initial part of the document it is also clear that on the site (5) there was already a cave dedicated to the Virgin of Providence and in which the Madonna was depicted together with Sant'Orsola and San Filippo, according to what an inscription at the entrance of the 'ingrottamento (in quo fuit et ad presens extat in pariete dicti antri ut dicitur a frontispiece introitus dicti antri an image Gloriosissime Virginis Providenti and posita in medio duarum Imaginum, videlicet unius Ste. Ursule a part dextra et unius Ste. Phi [lippi] to the left ). The presence of these saints next to the Madonna can be explained by the fact that the cult was paid to them nearby: Sant'Orsola, protector of fabric shopkeepers, is justified by the presence of tanneries that were generally located near the banks of rivers ( 6); the church of San Filippo is located on the opposite side of the Cava in the homonymous street, with entrance from nc 210 of the via Nativo (7), and is the first church you meet along the path which, departing from the riverbed near of our church, goes up to the Costa (Francavilla district) and then to the upper part of the city.

The second document (8), dated 13 January 1662, relating to the foundation of a benefit, presents the church already built: in quo antro seu loco ad presens extat edified an Ecclesia… dicte Eccl. (esie) noviter constructe et edifica dicte Gloriosissime Virginis Providentie; and again infinitum fundarunt et fundant ac construxerunt et construunt in dicta Ecc.a S.te Marie Providentie noviter constructa et fundata unum benefisium et jus patronatum…

The investigations carried out in the area of ​​the Buffa cottage made it possible to verify the existence of a variously articulated sacred complex (table 1). There is an environment - interpreted as the hermitage of Santa Maria della Purificazione da Belgiorno - semi-rupestrian, obtained on the ground floor of the cottage which is accessed through a polycentric arch, currently partly buffered, resting on molded tax ashlars; the free pier bears many carefully engraved crosses. In the southern wall, where Belgiorno had indicated and described the presence of a cona-shaped altar, the fresco mentioned in the documents was found. It is a panel with a width of m. 1,00, high m. 0,67 of which two layers of wall paintings can be recognized: the most recent one is almost entirely lost, of which part of the red-brown frame with black thread and frustules of yellow ocher and red remain; the oldest fresco, also in poor condition, shows the Madonna with her head bent to the left, with a gray tunic and seated on a red throne (?); of smaller dimensions, in hierarchical proportion, is St. Philip standing on the left, with his head turned 3/4 to the right, also wearing a gray tunic; only a part of the white virginal robe remains of the figure of Sant'Orsola, placed on the right. The fresco is framed by a yellow ocher band bordered by two black threads between which, at the bottom, runs the caption “…] MAR [IA DELL] A PROVIDENZIA” (fig. 1).

The rupestrian environment with this fresco actually constitutes the fulcrum of a subsequent extension, the presbytery area of ​​a single-ship church built in masonry (9).

The changes involved a transformation of the cave: the original rocky wall on which the fresco is spread was lined with a masonry curtain where the aedicule opens, the bottom of which is given by the rock with the fresco. The aedicule was built, framed by frames and flanked by volutes and spirals of acanthus (partly chiseled) supported by molded shelves; three angels overlook the shrine; under the aedicule is an originally painted coat of arms but the surface plaster has been chiseled and, next to this, a cross has been engraved in the plaster; on the aedicule, carved into the rock ceiling, is a small dome shaped like a ciborium where the Holy Spirit is sculpted in the form of a dove (now headless) surrounded by rays projecting downwards. All these decorations are made in limestone and gilded stucco.

Under the shrine there must have been a mural altar as in the nearby cave of San Giuseppe 'u Timpuni (10). In addition to the reconstruction of the fresco, the southern wall was also painted: traces of colored plaster emerge here and there, where the next dull is peeling. A polycentric arch served as a delimitation of the presbytery. Despite the subsequent superfetations and removals (11), the plan of the church is partially legible: the entire western wall remains of the nave, part of the northern one with one of the jambs and a portion of the entrance threshold; the eastern wall survives for about 3 m. up to a jamb (here a secondary access to the church had to open); the northern part of the east wall and the façade were removed from the foundations, indeed a lowering of the rocky footpath was carried out.

From the presbytery you enter a second semi-rupestrian room, dug into the rock but with a cross roof, which was to perform the function of accommodation-sacristy. The walls still retain much of the primitive plaster without any trace of paint.

It is not possible to accurately determine the history of these structures. The shortness of time - two and a half months - between when the church is mentioned as build and the prosecutors have the task of build do and when it is mentioned as edifica et constructa and constructa et fundata it is explained by the fact that, in all probability, between 1661 and 1662, it was simply adapted in the pre-existing cave perhaps with the addition of a few parts in masonry (12), such as the recently illustrated church of Santa Venera (13) . It is likely that the restructuring of the entire complex with the creation of a single-ship church took place after the earthquake of 1693.

In reality this is not the only church of which relics survive in the area of ​​the cottage. To the east of Santa Maria della Provvidenza, in fact, in the garden of the same Buffa cottage, as already briefly mentioned by Belgiorno, there remains part of a second church (plate II). The most probable identification for the latter is with that of San Rocco: although in the initial part of the two documents of 29 October 1661 and 13 January 1662 only mention is made of the district of San Rocco, in the second document there is a summary in vulgar of the act in Latin, through which the identification is reached: the Madonna della Provvidenza in this town of Mo.ca near the church of S.to Rocco (14). Thanks to the discrepancy of the vernacular version, therefore, it is possible to identify the church of San Rocco, whose location was given by Belgiorno, with the caution of "probably", near via Mazzini or via Santa Margherita (15 ). There are actually two churches dedicated to San Rocco in Modica: in addition to this site in quarterio Cartillonis, a second already existed in the Piano di San Giovanni (16).

Even the plan of San Rocco is not entirely legible, nor is the original extension determinable at the moment, but, on the whole, the planimetric articulation seems similar to that of Santa Maria della Provvidenza. From the remains it is clear that it is a single-ship classroom, completed, to the south, by a masonry curtain that is set on the rock, partly the lining and partly serves as a containment of the rear embankment. In this wall there is a rectangular apse with a barrel vaulted roof set on a molded cornice; it is approximately m high. 5,30 from the current floor to the prominent vault; a rock counter, projected towards the hall, but only a stump remains of it: the rest has been removed. There is a mural altar partially embedded in the rock and surmounted by a very high niche (17). Two layers of plaster internally cover the apse. To the east opens a small quadrangular room (with the function of a sacristy?) Whose southern wall lines the rock: what remains of the original of the walls of this room are the cantonal structures, for the rest the walls - except the southern one - have undergone continuous renovations. Beyond this environment, towards the north, the original eastern wall follows for about 1,50 meters, so it has been completely remodeled and an original cantonal about 15 m away does not seem relevant to the church. from the southern wall, which otherwise would result in a church excessively disproportionate in length. This cantonal would rather seem to be referable to an enclosure wall of the sacred complex, but, once again, the last word is left to the excavation.

The western wall of the nave, as well as the southern one, is carved into the rock and is partly lined with masonry. It is kept for a maximum height of about m. 2,90 from the current walking surface. At a distance of about m. 2,50 from the south-western corner, a pillar embedded in the wall, executed in well-squared ashlars, like a pilaster, adorned at the top by a reused molded frame (the molding also adorns a face of an invisible ashlar ), seems to be related to the cantonal of the environment on the opposite side, both of which could perhaps have served as piers for a triumphal arch of access to the presbytery as in the church of Santa Maria della Provvidenza. This wall is about 8 meters long up to a cantonal beyond which the wall flexes to the west.

In the southern wall to the west of the apse and in the western one there are traces of frescoes. In the first is a large fresco bordered on the right by a wide frame (stylized phytomorphic motifs in brown on a yellow background, and other spirals in red on a yellow background, included between sequences of arches with ends curved inwards) of which a few passages in red remain marginalized by a brown thread. On the western wall is a large panel (fig. 2), partly stretched out on the rock: on an ocher background with shades of green, the legs of a warrior with knee-highs stand out (height from the lower part of the thigh to the calf , 0,38 m): the right is bent, perhaps resting on something and the left bearing; the armor is in light gray with shading; between the legs there are remains of a motif in red with green shades, on the left perhaps a spear; to the right of this remains the head and the left hand raised in the act of adoration of a small figure (height of the preserved part 3,9 cm), perhaps a devotee of the holy warrior, or, more likely, if that line already interpreted as a spear is a frame, it is part of a small square that bordered, together with others, the larger panel. In the northern part of this wall there are other frustules of fresco and at least two layers can be distinguished: in the oldest one there are threads in red wine on a pink background; in the more recent one, vegetal motifs in brown, wine red threads on a yellow background and others on a pale pink background. The frescoes extend for almost the entire preserved height of the wall.

For this church too, several phases are evident, documented by the reuse of bare materials and by the superimposition of several layers - up to three - of plaster.

Il terminus ante quem the first plant of the church of San Rocco is 1553, the year in which mention is made of it as a reference point for the perimeter of the fair of San Michele Arcangelo (18). These are followed by those of Carrafa (19) and the documents relating to Santa Maria della Provvidenza.

 

The sacred complex and the adjoining rooms also served as a home and to accommodate syphilis patients who were treated by a hermit, according to what can be inferred from the Note de 'Romítori and Romiti existing in the diocese of Syracuse in 1776 edited by Mons. Giovanni Battista Alagona bishop of Syracuse: a hermit “is in the church of S. Maria della Provvidenza called Fra Bernardo of advanced age, but he is a madman. He is a surgeon's office. He cures syphilic disease for men and women, although this office is not confused with the hermitic life, and he does not have a good reputation (20).

The presence of a hermit - Friar Bernardo himself? - is also recorded for the year 1792, when an update of the report of Mons. Alagona is drawn up (21).

At the current state of research, there is no other information relating to the churches of Santa Maria della Provvidenza and of San Rocco for the subsequent period: certainly during the first half of the nineteenth century they were abandoned - most likely following the flood of 1833 ( 22) which had to damage them irreparably - if the church of Providence was destroyed before 1866 (23) and if, in 1869, it was listed by Renda, kiosk and prosecutor of Carrafa's work, among the churches "as destroyed in whole or in part, and as incapable of being able to return to the decorum of the ordinary office "(24).

 

 

 

NOTES

 

We express our heartfelt gratitude to Funny family for the liberality with which we were allowed to carry out the investigations in the cottage owned by him, al prof. Joseph Raniolo for assistance in reading documents,arch. Lucky Pompeii for the planimetric sketches that we present here et al prof. Duccio Belgiorno, Director of the Museum of Modica, to which this writing is dedicated. (The authors).

 

* Vittorio Giovanni Rizzone (Ragusa, 1967). After attending the 'T. Campailla 'di Modica, he graduated in Classical Literature (archaeological address) at the University of Catania. He specializes in Classical Archeology at the same University; PhD student in Classical Archeology at the University of Rome La Sapienza; lover of Archeology and History of Greek Art and of Archeology and Antiquity of Magna Graecia at the University of Catania. He has collaborated in various excavation campaigns of the Italian Archaeological Mission in Paphos (Cyprus).

Published: Corinthian pottery, in F. GIUDICE - S. TUSA - V. TUSA, The archaeological collection of the Banco di Sicilia, Palermo 1992, pp. 43-76; under "Chalcidian, Ionic pottery", ibid, pp. 201-202; An anonymous rock church in the Modica countryside, Modica 1995; The supply routes, in E. JUDGE, Attic vases from the first half of the XNUMXth century in Sicily: the reference framework, in AA.VV., The severe style in Greece and the West. Aspects and Problems, Rome 1995, pp. 165-171; The amphorae, in F. JUDGE ET ALII, Paphos, Garrison's Camp. 1992 campaignin  Reports of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus 1997The amphorae, in F. JUDGE ET ALII, Paphos, Garrison's Camp. 1993 campaignin  Reports of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus, in cds; Some observations on the rock church of 'Cava Ddieri', in Archivum Historicum Mothycense 2, 1996, pp. 49- 56; Analysis of the distribution of Corinthian vases in the Mediterranean (630-550 BC), Catania 1996; Achilles, Apollo, Artemis, Heracles, Peleus and Teti, Zeus, s. vv, in F. JUDGE, The journey of images from Attica to the West and the phenomenon of the relationship between 'prodigies' and 'iconographic fortune', edited by H. MASSA-PAIRRAULT, CNRS Rome, in cds

He resides in Modica, in via C.le Serrauccelli, 6.

 

* Anna Maria Sammito (Modica, 1965). He attended the 'T. Campailla 'of Modica. She has a degree in Classical Literature (archaeological address) at the University of Catania, and specializes in Classical Archeology at the same University. He collaborated with the Aeolian Archaeological Museum of Lipari and with the Superintendency of the BB.CC.AA. of Enna. She is an archaeologist cataloger at the Superintendency of the BB.CC.AA. of Ragusa.

Published: Topographical elements on the funerary hypogea of ​​the inhabited center of Modicain  Archivum Historicum Mothycense 1, 1995, pp. 25-36; A first news about the rock church of Santa Venera in Modicain  Archivum Historicum Mothycense 2, 1996, pp. 41-48; Topographical notes on the funerary hypogea of ​​Modicain  Aitna 3, in cds

He resides in Modica, in via Lanteri, 45.

 

(1) For Saint Mary of Providence, v. FL BELGIUM, Modica and its churches, Modica 1955, p. 159; for Sant'Orsola, ibid, p. 172; for Santa Maria della Purificazione or Candlemas, ibid, pp. 138-140; for San Giuseppe 'u Timpuni, ibid, p. 94 and A. MESSINA, The rock churches of the Val di Noto, Palermo 1994, pp. 48-49; for San Rocco, v. infra.

(2) Santa Maria della Purificazione was recently located in the rock complex behind the Motel (MESSINA, The rock churches ..., cit., pp. 47-48), whose size and numerous chambers on two levels would be well suited to accommodate a "religious hermitage". Of this, however, the identification is not certain and only "vestiges of antiquity" were kept of it already at the time of Carrafa (P. CARRAFA, Motucae illustratae descriptio seu delineatio, Panormi 1653, popularized by F. RENDA, Chorographic historical elevation of Modica, Modica 1869, rist. anast. Bologna 1977, p. 75). Probably the identification in this area is based on an erroneous interpretation of the text by Renda (CARRAFA-RENDA, Prospectus ..., cit., p. 172, note no. 32), which mentions Santa Maria della Purificazione, after Santa Maria dell'Itria, for which it indicates the well-known location in the western part of the city.

(3) It was not possible to find the archival documents cited by Belgiorno. A document from the De Leva Archive (De Leva Archive, at State Archives, Modica, vol. II, ff. 494R and 495R: Churches, Chaplaincies and Benefits of Modica), however, summarizes the information provided by Belgiorno.

(4) State Archives, Modica; notary Gaspare Giuca (230), vol. 30, ff. 59 / R 61R, copy of the original, preserved in vol. 29, f. 30.

(5) "Extra hanc civitatem Mo. (tuce), in q.ta [contrata] ven. (Erabilis) Eccl. (Esie) S.ti Rocci et in quarterio Cartillonis de parrochia Maggiore". For the extension of the Cartellone district, see G. MODICA SCALA, Jewish communities in the Modica County, Modica 1978, pp. 25-27.

(6) BELGIUM, Modica ..., cit., p. 172; on the cult of Sant'Orsola in Modica, v. also MESSINA, The rock churches ...., cit., page 48; the cult of Sant'Orsola can probably be located in the hypogeic complex behind the Motel, where the latter has recognized the presence of a tannery or dyehouse (ibid, p. 47). Regarding Sant'Orsola, however, it should be noted that it is not mentioned by Carrafa in the number of churches in Modica. The unknown of what was in front of the Buffa cottage, where Belgiorno already identified the church of Santa Maria della Provvidenza, an area now covered by debris.

(7) BELGIUM, Modica ..., cit., p. 72. Of the church, now destroyed, portions of the perimeter walls remain; it seems that this church too had a semi-rupestrian character, partly sunk and partly lying on the slope of the coast.

(8) State Archives, Modica; notary Gaspare Giuca (230), vol. 30, ff. 99R / 103R, copy of the original preserved in vol. 29, ff. 84R / 86R; this document is already mentioned by BELGIUM, Modica ..., cit., p. 159. A third act, relating to a foundation of benefit, of 25 August 1662, is found ibid, ff. 331R / 332V, copy of the original preserved in vol. 29, f. 401.

(9) The rupestrian part becomes the presbytery of a church built in the seventeenth-century extensions and transformations of the churches of Santa Maria la Cava and San Sebastiano in Spaccaforno (MESSINA, The rock churches ..., cit., pp. 80-83), of Santa Venera (AM SAMMITO, A first news about the rock church of Santa Venera in Modicain  Archivum Historicum Mothycense 2, 1996, pp. 44 and 47) and, most likely, also San Nicolò Inferiore in Modica, on which v. some hints in G. DI STEFANO, The rupestrian church of San Nicolò Inferiore in Modica, Modica, 19962. For the latter it is possible to reconstruct the plan of a semirupestrian church as follows: presbytery area carved into the rock in which the fresco of San Giacomo is spread (third layer), rectangular niche that cuts the frescoes of the second phase , nave with pillars supporting the surviving part of the rocky ceiling and therefore in masonry; on the walls there are frescoes with small squares.

(10) See MESSINA, The rock churches ..., cit., pp. 48-49. In reality, many examples could be cited with this arrangement with a niche at the top and an altar leaning against the wall at the bottom: among the many, we remember the aforementioned church of Santa Maria della Cava in Spaccaforno in its second phase (ibid, pp. 80-83), the chapel of the church of San Pietro a Gagliano (R. PATANE ', The rock settlement of Gagliano Castelferratoin  Historical Archive for Eastern Sicily LXXVIII, 1982 p. 4, figs. 3 and 6).

(11) The western wall of the presbytery was widened by deepening the cut in the rock to create a manger.

(12) That this cave was not used as a church is given by the absence of any mention in the list of the Modica churches of Carrafa (1653).

(13) SAMMIT, A first news ..., cit., pp. 47-48.

(14) It is not possible to amend the text "In q.ta Ven. (Erabilis) Eccl. (Esie) S.ti Rocci" in "Iuxta ven. (Erabilem) Eccl. (Esiam) S.ti Rocci" as in the original version (see supra notes nos. 4 and 5) the abbreviation "In q.ta" is partially dissolved in "In q.trata".

(15) BELGIUM, Modica ..., cit., pp. 186-187, on which G. RANIOLO depends, Introduction to the customs and institutes of the County of Modica, II, Introduction to institutes, Modica 1987, pp. 143-144 and note no. 77. The identification of the church of San Rocco also makes sure that the "curso" with the road from San Pietro to San Francesco alla Cava, as already indicated by MODICA SCALA, Jewish communities ..., cit., p. 26, note no. 14; for the location near Santa Maria di Betlem, consequent to the erroneous location of San Rocco in via Mazzini, v. RANIOLO, Introduction…, cit., pp. 143-144 and note no. 79. It is therefore necessary to review the circuit of the fair of San Michele Arcangelo, to be recognized within the territory of the church of San Giorgio.

(16) See Topographic map of the city of Modica by the architect Salvatore Toscano from Catania, of 21 September 1839, kept at the “FL Belgiorno” Civic Museum in Modica. Unfortunately, this plan does not include the area with the two churches that are the subject of this study.

(17) The arrangement with a mural altar surmounted by a shrine, whose floor is very low, is a variant of the previous one: cf. the one in the nearby church of the underground complex behind the Motel for which v. MESSINA, The rock churches ..., cit., pp. 47-48, under "The cave of Candlemas"; similar is the solution adopted in the rock church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, for which you can see a first succinct news in VG RIZZONE, An anonymous rock church in the Modica countryside, Modica 1995, p. 13 (no. 6); See also the altar of cave 1 of Licata (E. DE MIRO, Rock civilization of the Agrigento area. Examples from prehistoric times to the Middle Agesin  Rocky Sicily in the context of Mediterranean civilizationsProceedings of the VI international study conference on medieval rock civilization in Southern Italy, Catania - Pantalica -Ispica, 7-12 September 1981, edited by CD FONSECA, Galatina 1986, pag. 244, pl. XLIV, 1) and the original arrangement of the altar of the semirupestrian church of Santa Rosalia in Vittoria (A. ZARINO, Vittoria, Vittoria 1985, pp. 64-65, tables 14c and 16a; G. LA BARBERA, Of the cult and relic of St. John the Baptist in Vittoriain  Syracusan Historical Archive, s. 111, V, 1991, pp. 126127, tables I and 2).

(18) For the fair of San Michele, see RANIOLO, Introduction…, cit., pp. 141-147. It could also be hypothesized that the terminus post quem is 1492, the year of the ban of the Jews, who were based in the Cartellone district in Modica, if the eccentricity of the church itself with respect to the district to which it belongs did not advise against it.

(19) CARRAFA-RENDA, Prospectus ..., cit., p. 83. It is probable that Carrafa refers to the church in the Cartellone district, rather than to that of San Giovanni, since the former appears to exist in the documents of 1661-1662.

(20) P. MAGNANO, Irregular hermitism in the diocese of Syracuse, Syracuse 1983, pp. 36 and 79.

(21) "Last notation made in September 1792", for which v. MAGNANO, The hermitism ..., cit., p. 85.

(22) On the flood of 1833, v. M. RIZZONE, Statistical topographic meteorological report of the terrible cataclysm that occurred on October 10, 1833 in Modica, Palermo 1833, rest. anast. in G. HORSE, The Fiumara, Modica 1987. It should be remembered, however, that other floods, although less serious, occurred during the first half of the same century (24 December 1818 and 22 January 1830, for which see F. VENTURA, Notes on the city of Modica, Palermo 1852, pp. 21-22) and that could have damaged the churches so close to the river bed; it should be noted that in both churches the elevations and the advanced parts towards the river bed are missing.

(23) From a note by Abbot De Leva on the churches of the Parish of San Pietro (Archivio De Leva, at State ArchivesModica, Vicariate, vol. VII, sd, but prior to 1866): "Santa Maria della Provvidenza deroccata". It should be noted that the church had passed from the jurisdiction of the church of San Giorgio ("in quarterio Cartillonis de parrochia Maggiore" as shown in the documents of 1661 and 1662, and from the fact that it was part of the circuit of the San Michele fair which fell within the di San Giorgio) to that of the church of San Pietro, probably following the new division of the areas of the two matrices which took place in 1717 (see F. RENDA, Historical memories of Modica from the last years of the seventeenth century up to present times, appendix to CARRAFA-RENDA, Prospectus ..., cit., p. 121).

(24) CARRAFA-RENDA, Prospectus ..., cit., p. 176. Renda obviously does not mention the church of San Rocco as destroyed, as the other one with the same title existed at San Giovanni.

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