Monti Sicani, Rocca Busambra and Bosco della Ficuzza (ITA020048)
Site type: SPA Special Area of Special Protection
Code: ITA020048 - Hectares: 8603
Other site features: The Sicani Mountains area develops in the central-western part of Sicily, conventionally limited to the north by the Rocca Busambra, south-east from the Caltanissetta basin and south-west from the Sicilian Channel. It falls within the provinces of Palermo and Agrigento, affecting the territories of the municipalities of Monreale, Godrano, Corleone, Bisacquino, Chiusa Sclafani, Prizzi, Palazzo Adriano, Bivona, Contessa Entellina, Sciacca, Sambuca di Sicilia, S. Biagio Platani, Caltabellotta, Giuliana, Campofiorito, Marineo, Mezzojuso, Castronovo di Sicilia, S. Stefano Quisquina and Burgio. Among the highest peaks are Rocca Busambra (1613 m), Pizzo Cangialoso (1420 m), M. Barracù (1420 m), M. Triona (1215 m), M. Cardellìa (1266 m), M. Colomba (1197 m), M. Carcaci (m 1196), M. Scuro (1309 m), M. delle Rose (1436 m), M. Pernice (1393 m), Pizzo San Filippo (1352 m), Cozzo Catera (1192 m), M. Genuardo (1160 m), Pizzo Gallinaro (1120 m) etc. The same area mainly affects the basins of the Sosio rivers (with the Gammauta, Prizzi and Pian del Leone lakes), Eleuterio, Fiumara di Vicari, del Platani (with Lake Fanaco), Magazzolo, Carboj and Belice. The district is part of the vast system of the Sicilian sector which is part of the the so-called Apennine-Maghrebid chain, in the context of which the complex geological vicissitudes and the different tectonic overlaps have here originated a somewhat articulated and varied morphology, characterized by different stratigraphic-structural units. Being the area affected by a dense hydrographic network, where lithotypes with carbonate composition prevail, the landscape is somewhat bumpy, becoming relatively softer in correspondence with the substrates referring to the Numidian Flisch or recent floods that prevail above all in areas with flat morphology, in particular along the gods streams that characterize the marginal areas. It is a succession of clayey hills and limestone-dolomite masses of the Mesozoic age, these the latter distributed in an irregular way, now aggregated, now isolated and distant, without therefore defining a homogeneous orographic system. The territory affects various bioclimatic bands between the dry-subhumid thermo-Mediterranean (T = 18-16 ° C; P = 500-650 mm), along the more xeric southern slopes, to supramediterraneo (T = 13-8 ° C) with umbrotype varying from the upper subhumid (P = 800-1000 mm) to the lower humid (P => 1000 mm); evidently, these last conditions are realized on the highest reliefs. The predominant part of the territory falls within the Mesomediterranean (T = 16-13 ° C) with a shadow type varying from lower subhumid (P = 600-800 mm) to the upper (P = 800-1000 mm). The area, which covers 44.126,31 hectares, includes the following areas subject to protection, partially overlapping each other: four natural reserves (Ficuzza and Rocca Busambra, M. Genuardo, M. Carcaci, Valle del Sosio), a complex of state property and numerous SCI / SPA areas.The plant landscape is to be referred to different series of vegetation (GIANGUZZI & LA MANTIA, 2004), such as those of Chestnut oak (Oleo-Querco virgilianae sigmetum, Erico-Querco virgilianae sigmetum, Sorbo torminalis-Querco virgilianae sigmetum), Holm oak (Aceri campestris-Querco ilicis sigmetum, Teucrio siculi-Querco ilicis sigmetum ̧ Ostryo-Querco ilicis sigmetum), of the Sughera (Genisto aristatae-Querco suberis sigmetum), the Cerro di Gussone (Querco gussonei sigmetum), the Leptobalan oak (Querco leptobalani sigmetum), the pedicellated Willow (Ulmo-Salico pedicellatae sigmetum), etc. To the same series are also to be added the vegetation complexes relating to various microgeoseries (of the limestone rock walls-dolomites, detrital areas, water holes, etc.).
The Sicani Mountains constitute one of the areas of greatest naturalistic-environmental value of the whole island, even if the deforestation of the past centuries has allowed the survival of only a part of the forest cover of the past. However, it is an area of considerable flora, fauna and phytocenotic interest, with various peculiar aspects of vegetation, in which a high number of endemic plant species and / or of significant phytogeographic interest are represented, several of which are exclusive. The species listed in section 3.3 and indicated with the letter D refer to other entities that are somewhat found in Sicily rare, whose presence in the territory in question is in any case considered to be of significant phytogeographic interest. Numerous species are also present in the territory animals of inestimable importance at national and European level. The district also represents a link of great interest for the whole region, acting as a link between the large regional parks of northern Sicily and the mountains of Palermo to the north, and the southern coast system. dei Sicani until a few decades ago was considered the Italian territory with the highest density of species of birds of prey. Today, some species having disappeared, it is from check if it still maintains its leadership while still hosting a good number of them. The mammalofauna and the herpetofauna are also rich in species. There are numerous also the species of endemic insects present which considerably raise the value of entomological biodiversity, also considering the numerous rare entities and threatened.
Source: Ministry of the Environment Natura 2000 form
Ministerial data: Natura 2000 form
Card insertion: Ignazio Caloggero
Information contributions: Ignazio Caloggero, Region of Sicily