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4 Via Monte Kronio

Places of the Myth of Cronus-Saturn: Monte Kronio

Places of identity and memory (LIM)

Places of myth and legends: Myth of Cronus - Saturn

cronos

The site is part of the Places of Myth and Legends - included in the Register of the Region of Sicily LIM (Places of gods and minor divinities)

Places reported on the IWB: 

• Arm of S. Raineri (Messina)
• Mount Kronio (Sciacca, Agrigento)
<br>• Kronio Castle, slopes of Monte Pellegrino (Palermo) - Not identified
• Promontory of Trapani
• Altar of Kronos, Rupe Gogala (Caltabellotta, Agrigento)
• Monte Scuderi, formerly Monte Saturno (Fiumedinisi, Messina)

The following is an excerpt from the sheet "Cronos - Saturn"  taken from the book "Cults and Myths of Ancient Sicily" by Ignazio Caloggero. In the detailed file it is possible to identify many other places interested in the cult of Demeter, its origins and the religious syncretism related to it.

Marsala and Sciacca

The hypothesis has been formulated that, with the arrival of Christianity, the cult of Cronos was replaced with that of St. Calogero. According to the legend, S. Calogero was born in Chalcedon[1], as a young man, he retired to a forest where he received from God the gift of working miracles and the ability to prophesy. He then began to preach Christianity, was persecuted and forced, in 303, to exile in Sicily where he lived for many years in a cave in Lillibeo (Marsala), from where he only came out to preach Jesus Christ. At an advanced age he retired to Mount Cronio, not far from Sciacca, later called Mount S. Calogero, where he spent the last days inside a cave[2].

Mount Kronio (Sciacca, Termini Imerese)

The Cronii mountains were more than one and this explains how more than one are also the San Calogero mountains. Another mountain with the name of San Calogero is found, in fact, near Termini Imerese (precisely between the municipalities of di Termini Imerese, Caccamo and Sciara).

According to what has been said, the ancient Agrigento belief according to which the saints who respond to the name of Calogero were even four, all brothers who lived as hermits and who eventually became the patrons of the towns of Agrigento, Sciacca, Licata and Naro[3].

Signs that suggest the replacement of a pagan divinity with a Christian saint derive from the performance, not really Christian, of one of the feasts in honor of St. Calogero. Every year, on the Tuesday after Pentecost, a solemn feast was celebrated on Mount Cronio in honor of the saint, which often degenerated into a real bacchanal. In this regard, Pitre remembers:

".. and even today it is an exhilarating spectacle that of such pilgrims, who have gone with the best religious intentions, and who return too happy, if not drunk ...". 

Another interesting element that can be found in the legend of S. Calogero is the coincidence, perhaps not entirely by chance, of the fact that the saint, who had the gift of prophecy, lived for a certain period in a cave in Lillibeo, and precisely in a cave of Lillibeo it was the seat of the Sibyl of Lillibeo, the prophetess of Apollo, whose cult was replaced in the Christian era by another prophet, St. John the Baptist.

As you can see, only Mount Kronio di Sciacca has been included, other places could be inserted according to the information given in Ignazio Caloggero's file.

In relation to the Castle of Kronio, on the slopes of Monte Pellegrino indicated in the LIM register, I have not yet managed to find either the castle or elements that put it in correlation with the myth of Cronos (note by Ignazio Caloggero) 

[1] Ancient city of Asia Minor (Turkey) near the Bosphorus.

[2] Giuseppe Pitre: Patronal festivals in Sicily. p.368.

[3] Giuseppe Pitre: Patronal festivals in Sicily. p.380.

Card insertion: Ignazio Caloggero

Photo: web

Information contributions: Ignazio Caloggero, Region of Sicily

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